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  Consumer Protection Agencies
There are a variety of government and private agencies that can, in theory, help victims of fraud.  "In theory" meaning the reports are not always pursued.  There is a very simple reason for this: consumer-to-consumer transactions across state borders have never existed until the recent growth of the internet.  The sheer number of transactions limits the agencies' ability to pursue complaints.  The "higher up" the agency, the less likely it is to pursue any single complaint. 

The best strategy is to start with local agencies, such as the police departments (local to you plus the one local to the other party).  The local police are the most likely public officials to pursue a single complaint against a single person.  As one might imagine, this varies dramatically from city to city.

The Better Business Bureau may be of some help if the other party is indeed a business.  However, the most effective use of the BBB is to check a company BEFORE a transaction.

Each state's Attorney General's office may be of some help, especially if a large number of complaints are filed, or if the dollar figure is high enough.

National agencies are generally limited to pursuing complaints of widespread fraud, but there are some online mechanisms for complaints to be filed.

Below are some links to relevant agencies. 

 

  National Agencies
  State Attorney Generals
Alabama http://www.ago.state.al.us/
Alaska http://www.law.state.ak.us/
Arizona http://www.attorney_general.state.az.us/
Arkansas http://www.ag.state.ar.us/
California http://caag.state.ca.us/
Colorado http://www.ago.state.co.us/index.htm
Connecticut http://www.cslib.org/attygenl/
Delaware http://www.state.de.us/attgen/index.htm
Florida http://legal.firn.edu/
Georgia http://www.ganet.org/ago/
Hawaii http://www.state.hi.us/ag/
Idaho http://www2.state.id.us/ag/
Illinois http://www.ag.state.il.us/
Indiana http://www.in.gov/attorneygeneral/
Iowa http://www.state.ia.us/government/ag/index.html
Kansas http://www.ink.org/public/ksag/
Kentucky http://www.law.state.ky.us/
Louisiana http://www.ag.state.la.us/
Maine http://www.state.me.us/ag/homepage.htm
Maryland http://www.oag.state.md.us/
Massachusetts http://www.ago.state.ma.us/
Michigan http://www.ag.state.mi.us/
Minnesota http://www.ag.state.mn.us/
Mississippi http://www.ago.state.ms.us/
Missouri http://www.ago.state.mo.us/
Montana http://www.doj.state.mt.us/ago/index.htm
Nebraska http://www.nol.org/home/ago/
Nevada http://ag.state.nv.us/
New Hampshire http://webster.state.nh.us/nhdoj/
New Jersey http://www.state.nj.us/lps/oag/oag.html
New Mexico http://www.ago.state.nm.us/
New York http://www.oag.state.ny.us/
North Carolina http://www.jus.state.nc.us/
North Dakota http://www.ag.state.nd.us/ndag/default.htm
Ohio http://www.ag.state.oh.us/
Oklahoma http://www.oag.state.ok.us/
Oregon http://www.doj.state.or.us/
Pennsylvania http://www.attorneygeneral.gov/
Rhode Island http://www.riag.state.ri.us/
South Carolina http://www.scattorneygeneral.org/
South Dakota http://www.state.sd.us/attorney/index.html
Tennessee http://www.tbi.state.tn.us/
Texas http://www.oag.state.tx.us/
Utah http://www.attygen.state.ut.us/
Vermont http://www.state.vt.us/atg/
Virginia http://www.oag.state.va.us/
Washington http://www.wa.gov/ago/
West Virginia http://www.state.wv.us/wvag/
Wisconsin http://www.doj.state.wi.us/
Wyoming http://www.state.wy.us/~ag/index.html